Intraosseous (IO) Vascular Access
refers to the placement of a specialized hollow bore needle through the cortex of a bone into the medullary space for infusion of medical therapy. It is used when standard venous access would delay therapy or is not easily obtained. IO success rates are twice as high as intravenous line placement in critical trauma patients without a blood pressure and should have priority over IV placement and is a highly underutilized technique. IO can be used to administer any substance that is infusible intravenously, but IO use should not be for longer than 24 hours due to an increased risk of complications.
This codes to ‘Transfusion into Bone Marrow’ in ICD-10-PCS. ICD-10-PCS Book snapshot:
Device Names to look for: First Access for Shock and Trauma (FAST1), the EZ-IO, Bone Injection Gun (BIG), Jamshidi needle, Diekman modified needle
Common IO Access Sites include: Sternum, clavicle, humeral head, iliac crest, distal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, calcaneus
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